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miércoles, 3 de septiembre de 2008

Como NO enseñar ciencia

Como NO enseñar ciencia

Como maestro, perdón, como el jefe de la manada, simpre buscó los métodos más adecuados para que los niños comprendan las ciencias naturales. Navegando en la red encontré este espectacular rosario de maneras inadecuadas de enseñar la ciencia, la verdad aprendí mucho con este artículo, es más la lectura de estas siete maneras de deformar la ciencia, me llevó a una profunda reflexión sobre mi quehacer en la escuela. Quise compartir el artículo con todos ustedes:





Resumen

Numerosas investigaciones han mostrado que la enseñanza de las ciencias, incluso en el nivel universitario, apenas proporciona ocasión a los estudiantes de familiarizarse con las estrategias características del trabajo científico. Como consecuencia de ello las concepciones de los estudiantes, e incluso de los mismos profesores, acerca de la naturaleza de la ciencia no difieren de la visiones ingenuas adquiridas por impregnación social.

En este trabajo se argumenta la importancia de estas visiones deformadas como uno de los principales obstáculos para la renovación de la enseñanza de las ciencias y se analiza la atención concedida por la investigación didáctica al conjunto de deformaciones y reduccionismos.


Palabras clave. Naturaleza de la ciencia, visiones deformadas de la ciencia, concepciones docentes, formación del profesorado.

1. Una concepción empiroinductivista y ateórica

Una concepción que resalta el papel de la observación y de la experimentación «neutras» (no contaminadas por ideas apriorísticas), e incluso del puro azar, olvidando el papel esencial de las
hipótesis como focalizadoras de la investigación y de los cuerpos coherentes de conocimientos (teorías) disponibles, que orientan todo el proceso.

2. Una concepción rígida de la actividad científica

Es la que transmite una visión rígida (algorítmica, exacta, infalible...) de la actividad científica. Se presenta el «método científico» como un conjunto de etapas a seguir mecánicamente. Se resalta, por otra parte, lo que supone tratamiento cuantitativo, control riguroso, etc., olvidando –o, incluso, rechazando– todo lo que significa invención, creatividad, duda... Ello se pone particularmente en evidencia en lo que respecta a la evaluación: como afirma Hodson (1992b), la preocupación obsesiva por evitar la ambigüedad y asegurar la fiabilidad de las evaluaciones distorsiona la naturaleza misma del trabajo científico, esencialmente difuso, incierto, intuitivo… La evaluación debería tener en cuenta dicha ambigüedad, no intentar eliminarla.

3. Una concepción aproblemática y ahistórica de la ciencia

Muy ligada a esa visión rígida a la que acabamos de referirnos, podemos mencionar la visión aproblemática y ahistórica (ergo dogmática y cerrada): se transmiten conocimientos ya elaborados, sin mostrar cuáles fueron los problemas que generaron su construcción, cuál ha sido su evolución, las dificultades, etc., ni mucho menos aún, las limitaciones del conocimiento científico actual o las perspectivas abiertas. Se pierde así de vista que, como afirma Bachelard (1938), «todo conocimiento es la respuesta a una cuestión», a un problema, lo que dificulta captar la racionalidad del proceso científico.

4. Una concepción exclusivamente analítica

Una deformación que apenas es mencionada por los equipos docentes y que ha sido escasamente tratada por la investigación es la consistente en una visión exclusivamente analítica, que resalta la necesaria parcelación inicial de los estudios, su carácter acotado, simplificatorio, pero que olvida los esfuerzos posteriores de unificación y de construcción de cuerpos coherentes de conocimientos cada vez más amplios o el tratamiento de problemas «puente» entre distintos campos de conocimiento que pueden llegar a unirse, como ha ocurrido tantas veces.

5. Una concepción meramente acumulativa del desarrollo científico

Una deformación a la que tampoco hacen referencia, a menudo, los equipos docentes –y que es la segunda menos mencionada en la literatura tras la visión exclusivamente analítica– es la que transmite una visión acumulativa, de crecimiento lineal de los conocimientos científicos: el desarrollo científico aparece como fruto de un crecimiento lineal, puramente acumulativo (Izquierdo, Sanmartí y Espinet, 1999), ignorando las crisis y las remodelaciones profundas, fruto de procesos complejos que no se dejan ahormar por ningún modelo definido de cambio científico (Giere, 1998; Estany, 1990).

6. Una concepción individualista y elitista de la ciencia

Los conocimientos científicos aparecen como obra de genios aislados, ignorándose el papel del trabajo colectivo, de los intercambios entre equipos... En particular se deja creer que los resultados obtenidos por un sólo científico o equipo pueden bastar para verificar o falsar una hipótesis o, incluso, toda una teoría.

A menudo se insiste explícitamente en que el trabajo científico es un dominio reservado a minorías especialmente dotadas, transmitiendo expectativas negativas hacia la mayoría de los alumnos, con claras discriminaciones de naturaleza social y de género (la ciencia es presentada como una actividad eminentemente «masculina»).

7. Una visión descontextualizada, socialmente neutra de la actividad científica

Por último nos referiremos a la deformación que transmite una visión descontextualizada, socialmente neutra de la ciencia que ignora, o trata muy superficialmente, las complejas relaciones CTS, ciencia-tecnologíasociedad (o, mejor, CTSA, agregando la A de ambiente
para llamar la atención sobre los graves problemas de degradación del medio que afectan a la totalidad del planeta). De hecho, las referencias más frecuentes a las relaciones CTSA que incluyen la mayoría de los textos escolares de ciencias se reducen a la enumeración de algunas aplicaciones de los conocimientos científicos (Solbes y Vilches, 1997), cayendo así en una exaltación simplista de la ciencia como factor absoluto de progreso.

Los invito a leer, y descargar, el artículo completo en:

Visiones deformadas de la ciencia (PDF)

Acceda a la versión tipo revista en este enlace:

Issu (convierte PDF en "revistas")

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